I have probably handled 100 or so claims where a dog escapes from a house or yard. The dog runs into the street. A car, not seeing the dog, or seeing the dog and not caring, drives up and BAM! Car into dog. Fortunately, the dog usually survives. (I am a dog lover, having 3 myself.)
What do you do when this happens? Who is responsible for the damages to the car? Who is responsible for the damages to the dog?
In areas where there is a leash law, the car owner, or the insurance company for the car owner, will usually argue that the dog owner is at fault for violating the leash law. As silly as it sounds, when I worked for a now non-existent insurer, we made that argument and own. And the damages to a car can be substantial, especially if Rover is a Great Dane!
However, the car driver can also be responsible. If the driver saw the dog and did not take reasonable steps to avoid the dog, things like braking or swerving, the driver can be responsible. The driver may also be responsible if he/she was speeeding in a residential neighborhood.
The facts to each case will be important. However, dog owners need to be aware that they can be held responsible if their dog escapes and damages someones property!